France, China fueling India, Pakistan sub race

In an apparent underwater warfare tit-for-tat, India and Pakistan are bolstering their conventional submarine fleets with French and Chinese assistance respectively.

This month, India began sea trials of its fifth Kalvari-class sub, the soon-to-be INS Vagir. The boat was launched in November 2020 from the Kanhoji Angre Wet Basin of Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL). Reports said it will undergo a series of intensive sea tests of its propulsion, weapons, and sensors systems before being delivered to the Indian Navy this year.

The Kalvari-class is India’s designation for the French Scorpene-class conventional sub, which have been built via a technology transfer program between France and India that started in 2005.

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